Last updated: July, 2021
In a Nutshell: A Condensed Outline of Arguments for a Multi-dimensional Contracting Universe
by author, Alan R Graham
TIME'S PARADIGM – In a Nutshell
Eternity: Everything that ever was and will be, a solid state devoid of time and space – destiny thus assured.
Time: The present fluid moment only, created by consciousness, where chaos and causality rein.
Cycles: Models where infinities do not exist, where there are no beginnings or ends to attribute a period in which by linear definition flow is a falsehood.
Contraction: The evocation of change; a simultaneous and equal reduction of each of our three spatial dimensions, through a fourth – Time.
Proportionality: Layers of time existing in parallel to our own; past and future events which may occupy the same space but which between them are unobservable.
Lightspeed: A velocity equal to zero, both being attributes of the same event in cyclical models of space-time.
Transference: The perception of slipping between layers of time dependent on individual velocities that alter our rate of contraction.
To suggest something started from nothing is peculiar, at the very least. However, that is the quiet assumption voiced by most in the scientific community: The beginning of our universe, existence, all began with a massive explosion – The Big Bang. Yet, nowhere else in physics is this allowed to occur. Things don't just appear, energy doesn't just happen; there is causality... quantum ambiguity.
Theoretically time must cycle, as do all processional systems, the consequence of which being that all matter in our universe will eventually return to a state of origin, and the cycle continues. No loss of energy in the cosmos, no cataclysmic beginning nor apocalyptic end, because there are no limits in a cyclical, 'block universe' model.
Solely from our limited conscious perspective, then, not a passage of time but a declaration of state. Every episodic change through eternity is already an occurrence, as if a giant wheel whose parts are all connected, sequentially, seeming to revolve should the need for time become relevant. There is only subjective fulfillment, eternity being a dimensionless ball of potential – add a catalyst called consciousness and effervescence occurs.
Such systems sustain themselves; they are autonomous and immune to outside influence, having reason and purpose; lacking infinities and finalities that would affect containment.
Time's Paradigm: a new theory of time, unwrapped; dispensing with old notions of how we perceive existence.
Conformal Cyclical Cosmology was introduced by the renown physicist Sir Roger Penrose, and similarly asserts that time must cycle. However, his proposal suggests an oscillation of one Big Bang event encompassing the entire universe, whereas Time's Paradigm posits from a philosophical standpoint that matter may be constantly popping in and out of existence, as a consequence of probability, events large and small, throughout the universe.
It is only within this layer of time we call "Now" that a single big bang event was conceived to have occurred, a very long way away, whose aftermath we are in this very moment privy to examining. It is equally justifiable to consider that a similar event might have taken place just 5,000 light years away, last week, and that we have yet to register its impact. Or that immeasurably insignificant events from our macro perspective are taking place all around us on a daily bases.
Recent quantum correctional theories for General Relativity point to the 'singularity' before a Big Bang, and are also asking if there really was a beginning of existence – in other words, time.
We are privileged only to witness a tiny segment of eternity's vast breadth, a slim layer of time that stretches out across the universe imposed by the speed of light. We think we are seeing into the past, but only the slice of pizza we have been allotted. There is so much more of time that is active now, that is outside the beam of our headlights and simply out of bounds.
Indeed, the tiny portion of the cosmos we inhabit today was likely host to another solar system a few years ago, possibly our neighbour Jupiter, yesterday. Yet we do not see either in our limited view, they have travelled on around the Milky Way. However, if time is a solid state of potential, then that solar system we perceive to be a few light years away, today, has a past here and now.
The past is subjective. In that light, we make judgements, humanity trapped within a single layer of time without the means to experience any others. And thus, those judgements will be flawed. It is mono-sighted of us to make assertions under such constraints; we have no idea what is happening in other parallel layers of time.
Our misgivings all boil down to the speed of light, that shackle we have unwittingly imposed upon ourselves in order to quantify existence. We need to open our eyes to the obvious; our paradigm of time lies adjacent to others.
Consciousness Creates Time
The theory of time goes on to state that we create the present moment. Our minds separate the past from the future, and then slow down time to a manageable pace – otherwise it would all be over at once.
This is achieved through 'flicker fusion rates' experienced by all conscious creatures, forming a bubble of awareness, an illusion of motile reality incorporating time and space. The past and future are not really time, at all. Moreover, there is no space within them... nothing promotes existence outside of 'now' if there is nobody to contemplate it!
Within this bubble time flows, but it comes with constraints enforced on freedom sided by the static potential of a past and a future. Like slicing into a pie and having mirror images of existence on either side of the knife. If the future was not already waiting around the corner, the speed of light would be infinite, having nowhere to go.
Time does not pass in a block universe model because the future is the past and vice-versa; an irony, a cyclical pendulum like a necklace of pearls. We create time in the present moment only; it exists, an inconsistent truth, the order of things bent to accommodate impracticality. Furthermore, there is no reason to assume 'now' could not be anywhere within eternity and, by tenseless consequence, that it may have potential to exist in more than one segment or layer.
Linear vs. Cyclical Models of Progress.
Fluid progression is only possible in the present, where no sequential points are isolated and thus identifiable as individual entities. This resolves processional paradoxes. As all considered points in a cyclical model are unrealistic then flow is possible. Otherwise, 11.59 would never become midnight.
A simple, cyclical measuring device, like a clock or compass, has no ends and as such all points around it are uncertain. Because there are no defined points for relevance, our exact whereabouts on it cannot be ascertained, so we can freely pass from one moment or angle to the next (The Uncertainty Principle). Cyclical processes thus ensure continuity and immeasurable flow; whereas, linear models impede progress.
Linear models have defined ends because, in the view of their designers, nothing exists beyond them. Having defined ends means that any point between them can be precisely extrapolated – leading to the infinite impossibility of progression. (Unless it is conceived that the two ends are not relative to anything in between. In these dubious models, progress throughout is perceived to exist while the two ends are understandably unattainable.)
In physics, velocities are described on a linear scale, like a speedometer, from zero to the speed of light. At the beginning of the last century, in order to explain certain cosmological conundrums, light speed was established as being invariant, the other end was deemed irrelevant. Light was then seen to travel at a constant speed regardless of any observer's inertial frame of reference, and the conundrum was resolved – the luminiferous ether could be put to bed.
We created non-relative ends out of necessity, when we do not need to set such limits, if we consider progress of any kind to be cyclical. Time, space, trajectory and acceleration, must all be cyclical phenomena, as are all things processional. Bodies in the universe could not move were it not so!
While it is perfectly understandable that mathematicians need points to establish fact and express our understanding of existence in any reasonable fashion, their reference should only extend so far.
The assumption we have that acceleration is a linear progression is analogous with our ancient belief that the world was flat. It is clearly not. Neither is time nor space in this alternative theory of time. Any linear model with invariant ends is merely a pseudo-cyclical phenomenon.
If time and our understanding of existence is a cycle, and we only see a minute portion of that grand design, how does it manifest from without our limited, three dimensional perspective?
Universal Contraction: A Cyclical Model
Briefly, all matter emerges into existence at the speed of light (c), followed by a constant, proportional deceleration and dimensional contraction toward zero velocity (z). As velocity is a cyclical process, (z) and (c) are intrinsically the same, just as the end of one day, midnight, can be described as being the beginning of the next.
It is argued that zero velocity cannot exist independently, stationary objects in the universe must therefore – ironically – be travelling at light speed.
From a uni-dimensional, non-functional and massive state at the speed of light, matter progresses toward a physically collapsed state of immensely rapid functionality (change) at zero velocity. But neither end exists independently. Upon reaching zero, that extraordinary energy potential re-emerges as matter at light speed. Thus, our journey continues through time and space without cessation in constant deceleration. No energy lost, just a change in purpose.
Energy is shared between dimensional planes. Clocks speed up as we decelerate, our metabolism increasing, because particle functionality gains energy from reduced forward motion; less interference from physical motion in the macro world means atomic particles have greater mobility. When a body's forward motion practically ceases, particle functionality becomes supreme, and atomic perfection is reached (akin to Zero Kelvin).
We are in energetic, cyclical evolution, not entropic decline.
About Universal Deceleration:
We can only attempt to arrest it, not reverse it; cyclical processes only flow in one direction. We can accelerate off in this direction or that, and influence deceleration, perhaps even reduce it to near pause by reaching what we believe to be relativistic speeds, however that is just us approaching (z) from the point of view of others. Reversing time and motion, beyond arrested deceleration, back up to true light speed – where existence first began – would make sense on a linear scale where negative momentum can be implied, but is quite unrealistic on a cyclical platform.
Moreover, to stop our positive deceleration would constitute the identification of a defined point, which would render progress impossible and create the assumption that we were travelling at the speed of light. Vis a vis the CERN declarations on colliding particles, see part 6. Travel.
We and all physical objects are as if marbles rolling down a hill from light speed to no speed, that, if forced to stop anywhere, will wrongly assume we have been accelerated back up to the top of the hill again – because the hill is curved providing a false horizon. No body of matter can ever accelerate to universal light speed, it is in the forbidden past... the one outside our layer of time... the past we cannot see.
We can accelerate and travel distances relative to one another, but as far as the universe and light is concerned we aren't moving at all, we are ripples on the surface of a larger current within a bubble we call the present moment. We observe light as constant because we are all stationary, from the point of view of the universe. Time is of no consequence to either. So, locally, we can proclaim understanding of an invariant light speed, but in the wider universe this notion is redundant.
There really is no such thing as motion. As we pass from one moment to the next we perceive that we have moved physically..?
All matter in the universe is in collapse through time (UC) inversely dependent upon their velocities. It is how we perceive the difference between one moment and the next; not by a change in position, but by a change in size. This is not at odds with Special Relativity (SR), quite the reverse, there is consensus between the theories.
UC says that the rate at which we contract depends upon the amount of inertial energy we each possess to counter collapse. The faster we go, the slower we contract, or the more relativistic mass we appear to take on, as SR puts it. Being conscious of time and our whereabouts is due to sensory receptors, so as we contract, we are aware only of bodies whose material representation is proportional to ours, at any given moment.
Proportionality: Layers of time. We cannot see the past or the future from our perspective.
Contraction: The simultaneous and equal reduction of each of our three physical dimensional planes, through a fourth – figuratively illustrated by The Hypercube.
Can we illustrate the rate of this contraction? Indeed, we can theorize. The text book 'light clock' used to verify time dilation in spacecraft at relativistic speeds can be applied. If we make a progressive reduction to all material objects (mirrors) and the space between them by a factor of Fibonacci's Ratio, the photon is observed to travel the same distance in a geometric plane.
There is only one rate of reduction in which both the occupant and the outside observer concur without the need for Lorentz Factors. Such a coincidence is hard to ignore. Time Dilation is a necessary application to off-set UC. Einstein was well aware that a contracting universe bore similarities with his theories of relativity, rejecting the notion as overly complicated.
Breaking the Light Barrier
The standard view for an astronaut on a four light-year, interstellar round-trip voyage at relativistic speed during which she will experience a slowing of time is, of course, that the astronaut returns to Earth in eight years having hardly aged but a few months. However, under the conditions imposed by UC and this new theory of time, the astronaut will return to where the Earth is after eight years, unable to see her home planet nor interact with it, because as Proportionality dictates, it has shrunk over the years considerably more than she and will, proportionally, be outside her range of perception.
Alternatively, the astronaut could, having had her collapse slowed due to great speed, and with this knowledge, take control of her outbound and return trajectory to intersect Earth at the proportional moment for her size; which is just a few months after departing. In effect, slipping through layers of time.
If our perception of time slows down at high speed, why should we be bound to adhere to the faster clock speed of slower moving frames of reference, and return to their perceived present moment eight years ahead of ours? That suggests a constant universal clock forcing everyone to be aware of the same 'now' moment imposed by the limit of (c). And yet, 'simultaneity' is a corner stone of Special Relativity, demonstrating that no two observed moments are the same, giving rise to a contradiction if we must all be aware in only one moment and that being at the same moment as others.
Remember, there is no time in the past or the future. "Now" can be anywhere perceived.
If acceleration is cyclical, the infinity paradox of (c) is eliminated, distances become invariant due to the proportional nature of awareness in contraction and we can progress at our own pace through time. Our present moment of awareness is simply dictated by the energy required to resist collapse.
So, in the UC model above, those on Earth who welcomed the astronaut home after just a few months, would have to accept she travelled many times faster than the speed of light, intersecting the path of a distant star long before she was predicted to do so, and then returning just as fast. They would not have been able to observe this phenomenon, but she has photos of Alpha Centauri to prove it.
There is a universal clock in our neighbourhood. From the perspective of local frames of reference, the astronaut could not have travelled faster than light and, therefore, never reached Alpha Centauri. However, the reality will be different.
The Illusions of Life
Our perception of progress in time theory is due to Universal Contraction. All matter is in collapse and, though we are unaware, as we reduce in size we perceive only those things that remain proportional.
Illusions are everywhere. They are the affirmation that existence is real. If everything were ordered, equal and understood there would be little need to question... anything. That the world continues to surprise and delight us with peculiarities, keeps us guessing – asking questions – is the notice we are alive.
The Kalahari Effect provides the ultimate illusion. We are in the middle of everywhere with respect to an infinite horizon, between fast and slow, between big and small, and between the past and the future. We move this way and that and yet remain in the middle – of everything – from our perspective. As if we have not moved at all.
We are aware because we don't know where we are.
If everything perceived where absolute and unquestionable, it would be unlikely that progress could be made. It is doubtful that anything we see is fact, and more reasonable to assume that all things we see are interpretations. From observations by one, a line is straight, by another, it is curved. Both are right.
A fourth dimension through which we find ourselves all physically contracting is peculiar but not unrealistic. It is the perspective, or depth perception, necessary to see into three dimensional progression. Not unlike the third dimension our brains demand when looking at a painting on a wall.
And so, journeying through this giant Cycle of Time, our senses react, our brains dictate and we perceive 'now' in a moment adjacent to all the others. It's ironic, really; only because we create the flow of time in our moment does it take light some time to arrive from the past... from other layers of time.
And let's not forget the future. Every direction into which we wish to journey is perceived to be acceleration, even putting on the brakes is acceleration. But this is a mistaken belief we will only discover on exiting our solar system (the mother ship) at relativistic velocities. Zero velocity will become a reality of interstellar navigation.
In so doing we will discover that astronauts will dissociate with our present moment and slip between the layers, exceeding that fictitious speed of light which is merely a false horizon. The fourth dimension of time is multi-layered, our universe divided up into an infinite stack of parallel time zones, the past and the future all around us and ready to be accessed.
Solid eternity demands that all things be connected. It is this which tells us that space, seemingly a void of nothingness, is just that – nonexistent; yes, space is an essential part of connectivity. Not really an unprecedented conclusion; after all, String Theory is big on connections. Moreover, most people would find it hard to accept we are all just ships passing in the night.
An acorn is a ball of energy that bursts forth and up into the world, climbing slowly skyward, branching out here and there, in seeming chaotic and random fashion; when, in fact, it is an extraordinarily beautiful melody, full of resonance. Many hundreds of years later there stands a mighty oak tree – it worked, because in chaos hides perfection. All the acorns on that tree are connected, to each other and to the very first acorn that started it all.
Our Universe, states this theory of time: one giant fractal. The past and the future of everything, interconnected, existing all at once in chaotic assembly. A beautiful, four dimensional design, self-replicating, scaling, timeless in its integrity. At some stage the challenge will be to create such a beast that cascades within itself; that has no beginning, will have no end; whose outer shell will connect seamlessly with its interior, so creating an efficace cyclical progression.
An "Esher" of Eternity. The monumental iterative equations needed to express this structure will be the DNA of existence, itself.
... And time's paradigm will have come to an end.
(by chapter section and page number)
A/B Theorists: Destiny, Philosophical Perspective – 24
Apophenia: Time, Time's Flow Our Imagination – 39
Big Bang, the: Time, 38 – 44 – 57 – 61; Velocity, – 99 – 101, Big Bangs – 108
Block Universe Model: Destiny, Philosophical Perspective – 24 – 30 – 40
Buddhism: Destiny, Meaning of Time – 15, Philosophical Perspective – 23
Cassandra Complex: Destiny, Destiny is for Romantics – 16
Chaos Theory: Time, Arrow of Time – 44; Dimensions, Chaos and Fractals – 93
Christianity: Destiny, Philosophical Perspective – 23
Conscious Consideration: Time, How We Perceive Time's Flow – 41, A Universal Present Moment – 54, How Consciousness Creates Time – 62
Conformal Cosmological Cycle: Time, 44
Cyclical Time Progression: Time, Cosmological Cycle of Time – 46; Velocity, Cyclical Space-Time – 103
Definition of Time: Time, Definition of Time – 40
Definition of Destiny: Destiny, Meaning of Time – 15
Entropy: Time, Arrow of Time – 43
Fabionicci's Golden Ratio: Velocity, Calculating the Rate of Contraction – 109
Flatland: Dimensions 4d Thought Experiments – 87
Flicker Fusion Rate: Time, How We Perceive Time's Flow – 41
Fractals: Dimensions, Chaos and Fractals – 93
Hinduism: Destiny, Philosophical Perspective – 23
Hypercube: Dimensions, Considering The Hypercube – 89
Infinities: Infinity, Different Types of Infinities – 71
Kalahari Effect: Infinity, Kalahari Effect – 68
Large Hadron Collider (LHC): Travel, Hypothetical Experiment – 127
Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI): Destiny, Alternative Futures – 31
Presentism: Destiny, Philosophical Perspective – 24
Shrödinger's Cat: Destiny, Alternative Futures – 33
Synchronicity: Destiny, Coincidences or Causality – 20
Special Relativity: Time, 44, Linear Models in Space/Time – 48, Time Dilation and Astronauts – 58, How Consciousness Creates Time – 62; Dimensions, Dimensional Awareness – 90; Velocity, Special Relativity and Universal Contraction – 105; Travel, 118, Breaking The Light Barrier – 133
Taoism: Destiny, Meaning of Time – 15
Time Dilation: Time, Time Dilation and Astronauts – 58
Time Travel: Travel, 117
Uncertainty Principle: Infinity, Uncertainty Principle – 74
Universal Clock: Time, A Universal Present Moment – 54; Travel, Time May Not Be Universally Synchronised – 135
Universal Contraction: Velocity, Universal Contraction – 113
Zeno's Paradox: Infinity, Solving Zeno's Paradox – 80
Zero Velocity: Travel, In Search of Zero Velocity – 121
TIME'S PARADIGM, the ebook
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